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Zīmola orientēšana uz kategoriju nevis produktu (82)

2011. gadā izdotajā grāmatā Brand relevance, brendinga guru Deivids Ākers apraksta absolūti jaunu veidu kā veidot brendingu un kā gūt pārākumu pār konkurentiem. Būtībā tas savieno divas šķietami atsevišķas jomas vienā veselumā. Kategoriju un apakškategoriju brendings apvieno mārketingu ar inovāciju menedžementu. Pamatideja pauž apgalvojumu, ka ir 2 brendinga veidi. Pirmais ir brand preference, ko plaši izmantojam jau ilgāku laiku un kas tiek balstīts uz uzņēmuma vai produkta tēla definēšanu un šī tēla komunikāciju ar mērķa segmentu caur mārketinga kampaņām. Otrais ir brand relevance, kas tiek balstīts uz jaunas kategorijas vai apakškategorijas izveidi un tās aktīvu popularizēšanu. Šajā gadījumā uzņēmums veido ne tik daudz uzņēmuma brendu, bet gan skaidri definē jaunās kategorijas vai apakškategorijas brendu. To veicot, uzņēmums iegūst brīvu nišas tirgu, kas ir sākuma posmā brīvs no konkurentiem un kuru uzņēmums var veidot pēc saviem ieskatiem.

Lai precīzāk saprastu ko domāju ar kategoriju un apakškategoriju izveidošanu minēšu piemēru. Laikā kad iznāca iPhone tirgus bija pārpildīts ar dažādiem mobilo telefonu modeļiem. Tie bija pieejami gan dažādos cenu līmeņos, gan ar dažādām funkcijām atkarībā no katra pircēja vajadzībām. Tomēr iPhone ienākot tirgū spēja ne vien uzrādīt izcilus pārdošanas rezultātus, bet arī izmainīja visu nozari un Nokia, kas pirms tam bija vadošais spēlētājs nozarē pēkšņi kļuva par līdzskrējēju, kas to noveda pie nopietnām finansiālām problēmām. Ko Apple paveica, lai to izdarītu? Pirmkārt tas radīja jaunu nišu- Smartphone, kas vairs netika salīdzināta ar parastajiem mobilajiem telefoniem, otrkārt tas radīja nišas tēlu- dizainu, skārienjūtīgu ekrānu, aplikācijas, atbilstošu funkcionalitāti. Apple izlaižot iPhone izveidoja jaunu mobilo telefonu apakškategoriju, kura bija tik atšķirīga no parasto mobilo tālruņu kategorijas, ka klients iPhone neasociēja ar citiem tirgū esošajiem tālruņiem. Ja klients vēlējās smartphone, tad tas izvēlējās iPhone, jo gluži vienkārši citi mobilie tālruņi neatbilda šai apakškategorijai. Kategorijai ir jābūt kādām raksturojošām pazīmēm, kas to atšķir no citām un veido tās rāmi. Šajā gadījumā smartphone pazīmes ir skārienjūtīgs ekrāns, aplikācijas, interneta pieejamība telefonā un arī noteikts dizains.

Izveidojot šādu kategorijas brendu Apple spēja iPhone pozicionēt kā šīs nišas ideālu jeb paraugu. Līdz ar to Apple kļuva par nišas līderi un konkurenti bija spiesti sekot, kas rezultējās ne tik kvalitatīvā produkcijā un ievērojami zemākos peļņas rādītājos konkurentiem. Samērā veiksmīgi reaģēja Samsung, kas pašreiz cenšās pārņemt smartphone nišu. Pateicoties ievērojamajiem resursiem, kas tam pieejami tas ir iespējams, bet tas prasa ievērojami vairāk līdzekļu nekā izveidot jaunu apakškategoriju, piemēram smarphone senioriem. Tomēr iespējas, ka Samsung tas izdosies vēl joprojām ir niecīgas, jo tas nespēj pozicionēt Galaxy kā kategorijas ideālu un Apple radot smatphone kategoriju ir ieguvis milzīgus naudas resursus un spējis radīt barjeras, ko izmantot, lai atbildētu Samsung spiedienam.

  Izveidojot jaunu tirgus nišu uzņēmums iegūst sekojošas priekšrocības:

  • Iegūst no konkurentiem brīvu tirgus nišu,
  • Iegūst spēju savu produkciju pozicionēt kā kategorijas eksemplāru,
  • Iegūst līdera pozīciju tirgū, kamēr konkurenti ir sekotāju lomā
  • Balstoties uz minimālo konkurenci, sākumposmā iespējams maksimizēt ienākumus.
  • Uzņēmums var izveidot barjeras konkurentiem
  • Uzņēmums var veidot kategorijas brendu, līdz ar to konkurenti ir imitatoru lomā un ir atkarīgi no uzņēmuma.
  • Bieži uzņēmums iegūst bezmaksas publicitāti, jo jaunās kategorijas izveide ir saistoša medijiem

Kopīgā pazīme ir tā, ka šīs priekšrocības ļauj uzņēmumam piesaistīt ievērojamas evanģēlistu masas un uzņēmums var ietekmēt patērētāju lēmumu pieņemšanas procesu.

Tas saistāms ar sekojošiem faktoriem:

  • Tā kā uzņēmuma produkts ir pirmais kategorijas reprezentētājs, tas kļūst par kategorijas ideālu un objektu ar ko vēlāk tiks salīdzināts konkurentu piedāvājums.
  • Balstoties uz senākiem pētījumiem psihologi ir noteikuši, ka cilvēks, lai atvieglotu izvēli un samazinātu izvēles variantus tos iedala kategorijās. Tātad jo precīzāk produkts atbilst kategorijas raksturīpašībām, jo lielāka iespēja, ka klients izvēlēsies tieši to. Uzņēmums nosaka kvalitātes standartus un ar tālāku produktu palīdzību spēj mainīt kategorijas raksturīpašības, liekot konkurentiem minēt un paaugstinot iespēju, ka konkurenti kļūdīsies un izveidos neprecīzu produktu, kas pilnībā neatbildīs kategoriju aprakstošajam rāmim. Līdz ar to tikai uzņēmuma produkts pilnībā atbildīs kategorijai.
  • Uzņēmums ir līderis konkrētajā kategorijā, kas padara to saistošu mērķa segmentam, jo cilvēkiem ir tendence sekot līderiem. Vēl jo vairāk, šo sekošanu cilvēki apliecina ar uzņēmuma produktu iegādi, tādā veidā asociējot sevi ar šo uzņēmumu un tā tēlu.
  • Produkta atbilstība kategorijai rada pircējā drošību par tā atbilstību pircēja prasībām. Līdz ar to līdz minimumam tiek samazināta iespēja, ka pircējs būs neapmierināts ar produktu, jo tas daļēji vai pilnībā neatbildīs klienta prasībām.

 

Kā izveidot jaunu kategoriju vai apakškategoriju.

To nevar izdarīt vienā dienā un diez vai tas izdosies arī viena gada laikā. Pirmkārt mārketinga budžetā ir jāatvēl līdzekļi pasākumiem, kas stimulē ideju ģenerēšanu un inovatīvu risinājumu radīšanu. Tie var būt gan iekšēji pasākumi, gan ar open innovation modeli saistīti pasākumiem, kā piemēram:

  • Darbinieku ideju inkubators
  • Kopējas prāta vētras
  • Savstarpēji tieši nesaistītu nodaļu kooperācija
  • Konkursu organizēšana
  • Sadarbība ar nozari pārstāvošām augstskolām
  • Klientu iesaiste jaunu produktu ģenerēšanā

Šāda stratēģija pieprasa ievērojamas izmaiņas visās uzņēmuma nodaļās sākot no klientu apkalpošanas līdz pat vadības stilam un lēmumu pieņemšanai. Mērķis ir radīt vidi un apstākļus, kas veicina un motivē jaunu ideju rašanos un realizāciju. Uzņēmuma vadībai ir jāsaprot, ka šīs investīcijas neradīs tūlītēju ROI. Tās ir ilgtermiņa investīcijas un atkarībā no stratēģijas realizācijas kvalitātes vien no 5-10% aktivitāšu sniegs atdevi. Šajā gadījumā ir jākoncentrējas uz šo 5-10% saskatīšanu, jo veiksmīgi īstenoti tie sniegs ievērojami lielāku ROI kā jebkura reklāmas kampaņa. Parasti šis niecīgais procents ir spējīgs nosegt pilnīgi visas ar stratēģijas realizāciju saistītās izmaksas un plus vēl nest ilgtermiņa ienākumus.

Pēc veiksmīgas stratēģijas realizācijas ir jāspēj šīs idejas novest līdz stāvoklim, kad tās spēj nest ienākumus. Parasti lielās korporācijas veido mazākus apakšuzņēmumus, kuros strādā vien ar konkrēto ideju saistītais personāls un tās ir ikdienas darbā neatkarīgas vai vien daļēji atkarīgas no mātes uzņēmuma. Šādā veidā lielie uzņēmumi noņem birokrātija slogu no jaunajām idejām un samazina izmaksas. Ir svarīgi saprast, ka sākumposmā šīs idejas ir spējīgas attīstīties vien nelielā startup uzņēmumā un tikai ar laiku tās sasniegs līmeni, kad tās spēs nest peļņu visam uzņēmumam. Tas cik šis laiks būs īss vai ilgs ir atkarīgs cik precīzi ir definētas jaunās kategorija atšķirības no esošās kategorijas un vai tās risinājums ir aktuāls mērķa segmentam. Respektīvi mērķa segmentam jābūt pietiekami lielam, lai varētu apmierināt ienākumu mērķus un problēmai jābūt pietiekami aktuālai, lai mērķa segments novērtētu produkta vai pakalpojuma vērtību.

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