Blogi>Mīkstās prasmes – kas tās ir?

Mīkstās prasmes – kas tās ir? (65)

Personīgajā karjerā ne mazāk svarīgas par konkrētajā profesijā nepieciešamajām zināšanām un prasmēm, cilvēkam ir vispārējās iemaņas un prasmes, kas lielākoties izriet no viņa personības īpašībām, nekā no mērķtiecīgi apgūtām zināšanām un trenētām profesionālajām prasmēm. Šīs vispārējās, jebkurā profesijā noderīgās prasmes dēvē par soft skills un latviešu valodā mēdz lietot apzīmējumu „mīkstās prasmes” pretēji „cietajām prasmēm” (hard skills), kas vairāk attiecas uz prasmi izmantot konkrētas zināšanas un tehnoloģijas konkrētā profesijā.

Par šo tēmu oktobra sākumā man bija iespēja piedalīties mācību un pieredzes apmaiņas braucienā uz Čehiju Eiropas Savienības Mūžizglītības programmas Caurviju programmas ietvaros.

Ja Latvijā tikai nesen esam sākuši runāt par mīkstajām prasmēm, tad čehi šajā jautājumā ir tikuši ievērojami tālāk – līdz pat mīksto prasmju attīstīšanas iekļaušanai formālās izglītības programmu saturā. Pieejas, protams, ir dažādas arī vienas Čehijas ietvaros. Tā, ar kuru man izdevās dziļāk iepazīties, ir izstrādāta vienā konsultāciju kompānijā un bāzējas uz uzņēmumu aptaujās iegūto informāciju par kompetencēm, kādas uzņēmumi sagaida no saviem darbiniekiem. Analizējot un grupējot ir izdalītas 15 mīkstās prasmes:

  • Efektīvas komunikācijas prasme
  • Sadarbības prasme
  • Kreativitātes (uzņēmējdarbības) prasme
  • Elastīguma prasme
  • Orientācijas uz klientu prasme
  • Efektivitātes prasme
  • Patstāvības  prasme
  • Problēmu risināšanas prasme
  • Plānošanas un organizēšanas prasme
  • Mūžizglītības prasme
  • Proaktīvas pieejas prasme
  • Stresa noturības prasme
  • Informācijas atrašanas un pārvadīšanas prasme
  • Citu ietekmēšanas prasme
  • Līderības prasme (vadītājiem)

Vienkāršu pašnovērtējuma testu par visām mīkstajām prasmēm ikviens var pamēģināt šeit vai atsevišķi par katru no prasmēm šeit (izvēlieties angļu valodu). Bet čehi ir izstrādājuši arī vairākas komplicētas metodes  objektīvākai mīksto prasmju attīstības līmeņa nomērīšanai. Parasti novērtējums ir 5 ballu skalā jeb 5 līmeņos. Es savas mīkstās prasmes novērtēju ar datortestu, kas bija veidots, izmantojot asociācijas ar krāsām (!), un atsevišķās prasmēs biju mēreni šokēts, cik daudz iegūtie rezultāti atšķīrās no mana pašnovērtējuma.

Čehu secinājumus par dažādu profesiju darbiniekiem nepieciešamajiem un faktiski darba tirgū novērotajiem mīksto prasmju līmeņiem skat. zemāk.

Kamēr Latvijā sāk parādīties pirmie viedokļi par to, ka mīkstās prasmes daudz lielākā mērā nosaka cilvēku panākumus darba tirgū nekā cietās (piem., M.Hazans, db.lv, 20.03.2013.), čehi jau ir sarēķinājuši, ka darbiniekam mīksto prasmju paaugstināšana par 1 līmeni rezultējas vidēji 10% lielākos ienākumos, savukārt 1 mācību gads izglītības iestādē nes tikai vidēji 4-6% ienākumu pieaugumu. Iznāk, ka tas, ko mēs līdz šim saucām par vispusīgu personības attīstīšanu, ir arī reāls instruments, kas nodrošina augstāku konkurētspēju darba tirgū.

Tas, kas mani pārsteidza visvairāk, ir līmenis kādā šis jautājums Čehijā ir pacelts. Desmit gadu laikā dažādu Čehijas valdības un Eiropas Savienības finansētu projektu ietvaros, viņi ir izstrādājuši detalizētu metodiku mīksto prasmju attīstīšanai – diagnostika, apmācība, praktiskie uzdevumi, videotreniņi, vērtēšanas apraksti u.t.t.– katrai no 15 mīkstajām prasmēm 3 apmācību līmeņi ir pilnībā nokomplektēti ar vienādi strukturētiem, pārskatāmiem metodiskajiem materiāliem - rokasgrāmatām. Ar Izglītības ministrijas akceptu šāda veida mācības noris vairākos simtos Čehijas skolu. Bet Latvijā vēl joprojām uzskatām, ka mīksto prasmju attīstīšana ir katra personīgā rūpe, skolās to nemāca.

Arī man kopā ar grupas dalībniekiem bija iespēja iejusties studenta lomā un veikt dažus praktiskos vingrinājumus sadarbības, komunikācijas un problēmu risināšanas prasmju attīstīšanai, skat.attēlu zemāk.

Jā, es vēl aizvien esmu pārdomās par mīkstajām prasmēm, to nozīmi un mūsu attieksmi pret tām. Pasaules dzīves ritmam paātrinoties tās spēlē arvien lielāku lomu. Ja kādreiz pilnīgi pietika, vienkārši prast labi darīt savu darbu, tad tagad ar to vien laikam ir par maz. Arvien svarīgāka kļūst spēja būt piemērotam jebkuram darbam un ātri pārorientēties un adaptēties.

Lai jums izdodas attīstīt savas mīkstās prasmes! Lai izdodas arī man!

Valdis Rocēns

 

 

 

 

 

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